FLO-2D Pro #1 dynamic flood routing model
FLO-2D is a complete flood routing hydrologic and hydraulic model with many urban detail features, river and floodplain interface, sediment transport, storm drain component, mudflow and groundwater modeling.
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FLO-2D is a flood routing model that simulates river, alluvial fan, urban and coastal flooding.
FLO-2D can tackle any diverse flooding problem including:
- River overbank flooding
- Watershed rainfall and runoff
- Urban flooding with street flow, flow obstruction and storage loss
- Overland tsunami/hurricane surges
- Storm drain modeling
- Mud and debris flows
- Unconfined alluvial fan flows
- Surface and groundwater interaction
- Dam and levee breach
- Tailings dam failure and volume prediction
- Flood insurance studies
FLO-2D is a combined hydrologic and hydraulic model so there is no need to separate rainfall/runoff and flood routing. It is on the list of Corps approved models. For a brief overview of the model components For additional information download the Demo Model or Contact Us.
The model uses the full dynamic wave momentum equation and a central finite difference routing scheme with eight potential flow directions to predict the progression of a floodwave over a system of square grid elements.
Creating a Grid System
FLO-2D requires two sets of data: topography and hydrology. Topography can be represented by a digital terrain model (DTM) points, contour mapping or survey data. The grid element elevations are assigned from an interpolation of the DTM points. A pre-processor program called the Grid Developer System (GDS) generates the grid system and assigns the elevations. A typical grid element size will range from 10 ft (3 m) to 500 ft (150 m). The number of square grid elements is unlimited.
Aerial images can be imported to the GDS as background to assist graphical editing. The GDS requires a world file to read images.
Volume Conservation, Routing Algorithm Stability and Timesteps
The key to accurate flood routing is volume conservation. FLO-2D tracks and reports on volume conservation. Numerical stability is linked to volume conservation and when the model conserves volume the model runs faster. Computational timesteps are incremented or decremented according to numerical stability criteria for floodplain, channel and street flow.
Inflow Hydrographs or Rainfall
Inflow hydrographs can be assigned to either the channel or floodplain nodes. The number of inflow nodes are unlimited. Any ASCII data format hydrograph can be used as input. FLO-2D can also perform as a rainfall runoff model and rain can occur on the flooded surfaces.
Replicate Historical Rainfall Events with NEXRAD data
Model calibration can be performed with NEXRAD rainfall data. NEXRAD ASCII grid rainfall data can be interpolated to the grid elements using the GDS. A file RAINCELL.DAT is generated so that each grid element distinct rainfall data in the NEXRAD recorded intervals (typically 5 or 15 minutes). A historical rainfall event can then be simulated with spatially and temporally varied rainfall. Adjusted NEXRAD data to rain gages is necessary to compile rainfall data.
Infiltration and Evaporation Losses
Spatially variable infiltration for the channel or floodplain can be computed with either Green-Ampt, SCS curve number or Horton methods. Combined Green-Ampt and SCS methods will enable curve number rainfall losses to be model with transmission losses. Surface water evaporation can computed for both floodplain and channel flow.
Channel Flow and Exchange of Channel and Floodplain Discharge
One-dimensional channel flow is simulated with rectangular, trapezoidal or surveyed cross sections. Unconfined floodplain flow is simulated in eight directions (4 compass directions and 4 diagonal directions). Overbank flow or return flow to the channel is simulated for each timestep. For detailed simulations the channel can be larger than the grid element. Tributary inflow is unlimited. The GDS can convert HECRAS cross sections into a data file formatted for FLO-2D.
Streets are simulated as shallow rectangular channels with a curb. Streets can intersect and exchange flow with the floodplain.
Hydraulic structures can represent bridges, culverts, weirs or other hydraulic control features. Hydraulic structures are simulated by user specified discharge rating curves or tables assigned to either channel or floodplain elements. Reverse flow is possible. Culvert flow can occur between grid elements that are not contiguous. The generalized culvert equations will account for inlet and outlet control.
Storm Drain System
There is a fully integrated surface water and storm drain system. The storm drain components can include an unlimited pipe system, inlet, outfalls and manhole covers. Inlet control is simulated with five storm drain inlet types. Manhole covers can be popped. Outflow through the inlets or junction boxes with manholes is based on the comparison between pipe pressure and surface water elevation. There are numerous types of outfalls which may include underwater outfalls and flapgates.
Levees and Levee and Dam Breach Failure
Levees, road embankments and dams can be simulated by specifying crest elevations on a grid element boundary. There a several levee failure options including a comprehensive breach erosion model with a choice of nine sediment transport equations. Levee breaches can be initiated with fragility curves.
Buildings and Flow Obstructions
Floodplain storage loss due to buildings or features can be modeled. A portion or the entire element can be removed from potential inundation. Grid element flow exchange can be partially or entirely obstructed in all of the eight flow directions.
Rainfall runoff from roofs can be simulated with downspout inlet control and parapet wall storage. Variable depth tolerance values (TOL) can be assigned to accommodate other roof storage. The rainfall runoff from the roof will be added to the ground water surface around the building based on the roof slope. A positive roof head enables the flow to be added to the ground surface water while the flooding will still go around the building.
Low Impact Development
Lot-size flood retention storage for site development can be simulated with a spatially variable tolerance depth (TOL) value. This may include bio-retention, green roofs, rain gardens, permeable pavement, drainage disconnection, swales, and on-site storage. TOL values are assigned to represent composite Low Impact Development (LID) techniques on a given grid element. Different grid elements may represent different LID techniques.
Distributary Channel Flow
Overland flow can be simulated in small rills and gullies instead of sheet flow. The small distributary channels expand as more flow enters the gully. This distributary flow improves the time of concentration for floods progressing over alluvial fans.
Mud and Debris Flows
Mudflow is simulated by the FLO-2D model using a quadratic rheological model that includes viscous stress, yield stress, turbulence and dispersive stress terms as a function of sediment concentration. Viscous mudflows may cease flowing and conversely, mudflows can be diluted by inflow.
Sediment transport is computed for both channel and overland flow using one of eleven available equations. Sediment volume is conserved on a grid element basis. Scour and deposition are non-uniformly distributed on channel cross sections. Sediment routing by size fraction and armoring can be simulated.
Groundwater and surface water exchange
The FLO-2D model is linked with the USGS groundwater MODFLOW model at runtime. Groundwater and surface exchange can occur in both directions.
Limiting Froude Numbers
Limiting Froude numbers can be assigned to the channels, streets and floodplain grid elements. When the limiting Froude number is exceeded in a particular grid element, the model will increase the roughness value to suppress numerical surging. It is efficient for the model flood routing to calibrate n-values for reasonable Froude numbers.
Model Output, Results and Mapping
Text output is written to ASCII files. The Post-processor MAPPER programs create shaded contours, line contours or grid element flow depth plots and hazard maps. Flood damages can be assessed and the FLO-2D output can be viewed as a flood animation. MAPPER will also automatically generate shape files that can be imported directly to ArcGIS. A DFRIM tool is available for FEMA FIS studies.
Results can be written now to the TIMDEP output file using a HDF5 or NetCDF binary format. FLO-2D PRO writes the TIMDEP output file in different formats according to the value specified on the ITIMTEP variable:
0: NO TIMDEP.OUT RESULTS
1: ONLY TIMDEP.OUT IS WRITTEN
2: TIMDEP.OUT and HDF5 ARE WRITTEN
3: TIMDEP.OUT and NETCDF4 FILES ARE WRITTEN
4: ALL OUTPUT FILES ARE WRITTEN
For options 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 the output timestep TIMTEP must be specified. The number of output variables printed in the TIMDEP files was also expanded.
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With the purchase of the annual subscription service, FLO-2D Software Inc. grants to Licensee, and Licensee hereby accepts, a non-exclusive, non-transferable, royalty-free License, for use by Licensee only, of the FLO-2D Software package that includes the FLO-2D Pro computer model and processor programs commonly known and referred to as FLO-2D Pro. The License includes the right to copy the FLO-2D Licensed Software only for use within the Licensed office. The license permits the use of the software by Licensee or its regular employees on any and all computers owned by Licensee within or located at the office as indicated by the Licensee’s address appears in documents submitted to FLO-2D. The License granted above does not include the right to copy or distribute the FLO-2D Licensed Software to any person or entity outside the Licensed office. The License does not permit the use of the FLO-2D Licensed Software on a laptop or portable computer outside of Licensed office.
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This License Agreement shall continue in effect until terminated. The term of the FLO-2D Pro License shall be the term of the Pro Annual Subscription Service, starting on the date of the payment of the Subscription Service and ending on the same day one year later. Multiple years of Subscription Service may be purchased which extends the term of the License for the duration of the Subscription Service. Without prejudice to any other rights, this Agreement will terminate automatically if you fail to comply with any of the limitations, commit default or fail to meet other requirements described herein.
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FLO-2D Software, Inc. does not make any warranty, either express or implied with respect to the licensed software, its quality, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose. All the FLO-2D Licensed Software provided hereunder is licensed “AS IS” and does not warrant that the licensed software is free from claims of infringement or patents, copyrights, trade secrets, or other proprietary rights of others. There are no warranties, either express or implied, and any and all such warranties are hereby disclaimed and negated. FLO-2D Software and its employees do not warrant the performance or results that you may obtain by using the FLO-2D Software or any results generated by the software. The user assumes the entire risk of using the FLO-2D Software. No oral or written information or advice given by FLO-2D Software Inc. or its employees shall create a warranty or make any modification, extension or addition to this warranty. In no event whatsoever, shall FLO-2D Software, Inc. or its employees be liable to the Licensee or to any third parties for any damages caused, in whole or in part, by the use of the licensed software or for any lost revenues, damages to computers or other computer software, lost profits, lost savings or other direct or indirect, incidental, special, or consequential damages incurred by any person, even if advised of the possibility of such damages or claims, arising out the use or application of the FLO-2D Software or the inability to use the software. The liability of FLO-2D Software, Inc. for a defective copy of the FLO-2D Software will be limited exclusively to the replacement of the originally purchased copy of the FLO-2D Software with another copy of the software or the refund of the subscription service fee if the service agreement is returned within 30 days of the date of purchase.
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Use these project examples to learn about the various model components. The data files are installed in the FLO-2D Folder along with the software.
Barnard Creek Mudflow Alluvial Fan, Centerville, Utah
Barnard Creek is a completely urbanized alluvial fan with a small debris basin at the fan apex. FLO-2D was applied to delineate the potential water flood and mudflow hazard on the fan. Streets, buildings and the debris flow overflow were simulated. The various flood scenarios that can be simulated include water flooding, rainfall, mudflow, and rainfall and mudflow.
Diamond Alluvial Fan, Las Vegas
A consulting firm conducted an alluvial fan rainfall/runoff study above a proposed development in Las Vegas, Nevada. Rainfall was simulated in the upper basin and runoff was routed to the development site. This project represents a good example of simulating the hydrology of the combined basin and fan complex.
California Aqueduct, Central Valley, California
Flows in the California Aqueduct were simulated using a trapezoidal channel and a uniform slope. The channel was represented by 97 500 ft grid elements. Knowing the design discharge and the channel geometry, slope and roughness, the flow hydraulics can be compared with the analog solution to Manning’s equation for steady, uniform flow. FLO-2D correctly predicts the flow depth and velocity.
Monroe Creek Alluvial Fan, Richfield, Utah
Monroe Creek bisects a large alluvial fan in central Utah. There is a significant supply of boulders from the upstream watershed. The Corps of Engineers used FLO-2D to conduct an unconfined flood simulation of overbank flows. Rectangular, trapezoidal and natural shaped cross sections were used to represent the channel geometry. Overbank flooding and return flows to the channel were simulated to delineate the flood hazard.
Rio Grande, New Mexico
The Middle Rio Grande from Cochiti Reservoir to Elephant Butte Reservoir (173 miles) is being modeled through a joint project of the Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation and Fish and Wildlife Service. A portion of the entire reach is provided to demonstrate the cross section routine in the FLO-2D model. The reach from San Acacia Dam to San Marcial USGS gage (about 40 miles) is presented. Levees are simulated.
Rogue River, Oregon
The Rogue River FLO-2D project in Oregon was developed by a consulting firm. The 15 mile reach of river includes numerous split channels and old meander bends. The floodplain was mined for gravel and a number of deep gravel pits are part of channel-floodplain interaction. A weir is defined as the channel outflow and provides water surface control for the lower end of the system.
Whiskey Petes Alluvial Fan, Stateline, Nevada
An alluvial fan flood hazard delineation study was conducted above a casino resort. Flows over the alluvial fan were collected at railroad berms and directed into culverts that could overtop the railroad embankment. The culvert outflows were directed at the casino. A concrete channel was designed to collect the flows upfan of the casino and convey them laterally across the fan. Sediment transport was analyzed to determine the potential loss of channel conveyance due to sediment deposition. Flow runup in the channel was a design consideration.
FLO-2D Pro Model subscription service and license track
The intent of having an affordable subscription price with an annual renewal is to avoid having you purchase expensive updates every 2-3 years. In addition, we don’t have to create new updates and releases to generate funding. We can just release new features as they are developed. It also helps to maintain a consistent income.
Our current 1-year subscription service price is $995.00.
Please Click Here to start or extend your subscription.
About your FLO-2D Pro subscription service:
Please review our services below because our policy may have changed.
The FLO-2D Pro Model subscription service includes:
- Unlimited stations in your licensed office.
- Unlimited model nodes.
- Full access to all model components and features.
- Updates and new features.
- Weekly webinars.
- Training Discounts.
- Technical support for data issues and model bugs.
- Discounted consulting and project technical oversight.
One time purchase price for a permanent license without a subscription: $5,000.00.